Anatomy: The Human Body

617/201 1 Overview of Anatomy and Physiology ??? Anatomy: The study of structures The Human Body: An Orientation ??? Subdivisions: – Gross or macroscopic anatomy (ex: regional, systemic anatomy) – Microscopic (ex: cytology, histology) – Developmental (ex: embryology) 2 ??? Essential tools for the study of anatomy: – Mastery of anatomical terminology – Observation – Manipulation – Palpation – Auscultation ??? Physiology: The study of function – Renal physiology – Neurophysiology – Cardiovascular physiology – Cell physiology 3 4 Principle ot Complementarity ??? Essential tools for the study of physiology: Ability to focus at many levels (from systemic to cellular and molecular) – Basic physical principles (ex: electrical currents, pressure, and movement) – Basic chemical principles ??? Anatomy and physiology are inseparable. – Function always reflects structure – What a structure can do depends on its specific form 5 6 Atoms Levels of Structural Organization 1 Chemical level Atoms combine to form molecules.

Chemicals Organelles Cells Tissues Organs Organ systems Organism Molecule Organelle Smooth muscle cell 2 Cellular level Cells are made up of molecules. 8 2010 Pearson Education, Inc Smooth muscle tissue 3 Tissue level Tissues consist of similar types of cells. 9 10 Cardiovascular system Heart Blood vessels Blood vessel (organ) Connective tissue Cells are made up ot Epithelial tissue 4 Organ level Organs are made up of different types of tissues. 5 Organ system level Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely. 11 12 Organ Systems ??? 11 Major organ systems make up the body 6 Organismal level The human organism is made up of many organ systems. 13 14 Skeletal system Integumentary System (bones, cartilage, Joints) Protection

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Support Muscle attachment & movement ??? Storage ??? Site of blood cell formation ??? (skin, sweat glands, hair, nails) ??? forms the outer body covering ??? Separates the internal structures from the external environment ??? Protects against injury 15 Muscular System 16 Digestive System ??? (mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, accessory organs) ??? (Numerous different muscles) ??? Breakdown of food ??? Movement ??? Absorption ??? Produce neat ??? Excretion 17 18 System Respiratory System ??? (nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, lungs, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli) ?? (heart, blood vessels, blood cells) ??? transports blood ??? Exchange of gases between body and atmosphere ??? Thermoregulation 19 20 Nervous System Lymphatic System ??? (lymph vessels, lymph nodes, thymus, spleen) ??? (brain, spinal cord, nerves, receptors, sense organs) ??? Protects against infection ??? Control center ot body ??? Filters lymph fluids ??? Intellect 21 Endocrine Urinary ??? (kidney, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra) (the endocrine glands shown in fgure) ??? Filters blood ??? Regulation of: metabolism growth reproduction ??? Regulates: – Blood pH – Water levels Ion concentrations 24 Female Reproductive System Reproductive Systems ??? (ovaries, uterine tube, uterus, vagina, mammary glands) ??? Production of offspring 25 Female Reproductive 26 ??? Site of: – Fertilization – Fetal development ??? Produce eggs (oocytes) ??? Produces hormones ??? Produce milk 27 Male Reproductive 28 Organ Systems Interrelationships ??? (testes, ducts, penis, accessory structures) ??? All cells depend on organ systems to meet their survival needs ??? Produce sperm ??? Organ systems work cooperatively to perform necessary life functions ??? Transfer sperm to