Language and Communication
Language is the system of sounds, meaning or grammar and is a construct of communication. The main components of language are morphemes and phonemes. Morphemes are the smallest units of a language that have a meaning while phonemes are the basic elements of speech sounds. Language has various rules and forms for use which include pragmatics which is the use of language, semantics which is the use of vocabulary and meaning and morphology and syntax or grammar. Its centers in the brain are in the left temporal lobe (Krause et al., 2014). Communication is an exchange of information passed on through signals, visual or dramatic art, gesture, facial expressions, and mimicry.
Language is formed through the structuring of words that are broken down and arranged to achieve syntax, grammatical rules. Speech and language are taught from a tender age. Offering stimulating environments and interaction for young children enables them to grow and develop in communication. Often children need to be taught how to listen, talk, understand and make responses before they commence formal education. Children learn to communicate depending on the morpheme they are introduced to first, however, perfect later in school (Krause et al., 2014). For instance, a child who learns to use an ending for the plural is likely to say milks instead of milk.
There are different ways that promote the communication and language skills of the young ones. They should engage in joint interaction with other children as they share and learn different words among themselves thus building their communication skills. Adults need to respond to children’s speech and vocalizations. When children are growing up, they struggle to utter different words and they often pronounce them wrongly. Parents or older siblings need to help the child correctly state the words as well as learn what they mean when communicating to ensure they respond to the children’s needs (Krause et al., 2014). The children need to be introduced to rich vocabulary and complex grammar at an early age to build their syntax. As children grow and learn to distinguish different words, one can use books with engaging stories to help the children learn different words and structuring of sentences to communicate effectively.
Children are not the only mammals that learn to communicate and use language. Apes such as chimpanzees are well linked with the sign language as well as uttering of few sounds to communicate. However, they have to be cross-fostered and trained to learn the human language. The new environment that they grow up in influences their behavior and later in life behave as they foster parents instead of their biological ones. Some zoos have tamed apes as tourist attraction sites, it is spectacular to see how a human being can use language to an animal, and it responds. The primates understanding of language is however linked to their brains that are quite similar to those of human beings. They are however smaller and not as developed which limits their ability to grasp words and respond as human beings do fully.
Today, one is likely to see people converse in supermarkets, offices and while traveling. Language has been used a form of bonding people together even when they are complete strangers. People with similar interests bond faster than those who communicate and have different likes. It is because people who have shared interests have information that would make the other party more interested in having longer conversations and learning about each other’s lives. The form of language used in communication is, however, dependent on the activity one is carrying out. The way a teacher converses with a student is different from how the same teacher will converse with his or her colleagues. The teacher intends to impact knowledge to the student hence will create an environment to enable the child to grasp the required information for their classes. When with colleagues, the teacher has friendly and fun communication thus building rapport and bonds among them.
English is the most used language globally. There are countries that use it as a first language, a second language or as an unofficial language. Despite being one language and use of common words, people from different countries pronounce English words differently (Crystal, 2012). It is linked to the different native languages the people are exposed as they grow up. For instance, Americans and Europeans are Native English speakers. Their language is fluent and is well versed with rich vocabulary and complex grammar in the language. Africans, Germans, and Chinese, on the other hand, learn English as a second or foreign language. They mostly become well versed in the language at school. They, however, do not have rich syntax as the Native English speakers, and when a person from one of these communities converses in English, one would realize that they speak a different language due to their accent. It can lead to language barrier in some instances however many are the times when a native English speaker and English as a second language speaker can converse effectively as they communicate using a language that they both understand (Crystal, 2012). Knowledge of a common language such as English has however enabled people from different regions to pass information and understand each other.
Crystal, D. (2012).T English as a global language. Cambridge University Press.
Krause, M., Corts, D., Smith, S., ; Dolderman, D. (2014). An Introduction to Psychological Science, First Canadian Edition, (1st ed., pp. 336-348). Pearson Canada Inc.