Enlightenment – Bacon and Locke

Cognition in philosophy is an approach that develops the foundation to understand the world better. Importantly, it is an approach that gives the credibility related to natural reasoning. Given such an understanding, it is important to acknowledge that many philosophers of the world have tried to elaborate individual theories that shed light to natural reasoning. A good point to note, it has been mans admiration and quest to explain nature and consequently justify the way scientific discoveries dominate developments in the worlds. Example philosophers include Francis Bacon and John Locke, who have worked tirelessly to elaborate cognition approaches. However, the two scholars have presented divergent viewpoints and intuitions through their writings (Bacon, 145). This paper compares the two philosophers based on their individual work and their consequent impact as viewed by other people. Notably, the two philosophers have enhanced the study of the human mind on a sophisticated level. Evidently, they have studied how the mind functions and relevant response upon exposure to certain events. Importantly, the philosophers have contributed largely to the development of empiricist approach consequently influencing psychology through a study of human behavior based on observations and through experiments. Given such an in-depth understanding, one would agree that the real similarity between Bacon and Locke is that they have elevated the field of psychology through their divergent viewpoints.

The two philosophers (Bacon and Locke) qualify as empiricists in the case that they share the ideology that all for all concepts to be applicable, they need to be experienced. Importantly, they are philosophers that hold the school of thought that rationally acceptance of beliefs or certain propositions develops after an experience. In simple terms, the two believe that for any applicable belief to be justifiable, the two concurred that one has to experience the school of thought of perceived ideology. An example case to support such argument develops from evaluating John Lockes ideas. According to Locke, argued that for progressive achievement in different scientific fields, there was a need to establish a ground for the developments in the case that there was a need to formulate a theory that would help understand and justify the human knowledge (Antsey, 169). As such, Locke developed the epistemological foundations for the emergent scientific fields. This statement means that he improved scientific studies through employing evaluative approaches especially in the case of his work An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690). Given the example, one would agree that it depicts the empiricist point of view in the case that he evaluated human knowledge through a review of uncritical beliefs and the borrowed opinions. A point to note, Lockes approach to other scientific works by other people proves that he exhibited a unique viewpoint similar to the empiricist point of view.

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Subsequently, he used practical information obtained by the scientist to explain his philosophical aims through utilization and application of a Baconian method. As such, Locke developed his argument references based on experiences consequently proving his line of thinking. Importantly, he dismissed the belief that the logic and principals of metaphysics are innate. Thus, Locke provided a contradicting perception into the human knowledge in the case that he refuted claims that it is inborn. As such, he offered an alternative viewpoint that he later justified through practical work. Locke argued that the mind is an empty room that is mostly flourished by sensation from things seen in the physical world. Next, he pointed that the ideas develop over time through a reflection of different individuals. Given such grounds, Locke proved his argument from the empiricist point of view that thought and sensation constitutes the origin of human knowledge (Faiella, 167). Locke also used practical methodologies to prove his point in the case that he argued that experiencing the world through individual senses shows the truth about a given ideology or line of reasoning. For instance, anybody who is out to try the key in a lock would have to insert the key in the lock and see if it opens. In simple terms, experiments and fast hand experiences are a real justification for any school of thought.

Francis Bacon, on the other hand, qualifies as empiricists in the case that he presented his arguments from an absolute study on structures of the system. In this view, one would argue that his school of thought developed over a unique approach. The justifications to include in such reasoning are that during Bacons time, most scholars reasoned from a mathematical point of view. The contradiction developed in the case that he argued from grounds of law as opposed to other philosophers who developed their logical reasoning from mathematics. Importantly, Bacon used court rulings by judges as the practical material to develop his unwritten laws. An example case is his discussion of the human error and the important way of correcting such a complication (Bacon, 180). As an opinion, one would agree that Bacon used works by other philosophers to develop most of his argument. As such, the case presented by the philosopher did not contribute largely to the world of science.

Notably, Bacons incapability to understand mathematical concepts and theories limited his contribution to such a field. However, given such a limitation, one would not dismiss his line of thinking that achieved recognition across the nations of the world. Firstly, he argued that the human populations are individuals that have formulated a perception to their interests. Such a statement means that Bacon argued in the sense that human perceived ideology was pivotal in accomplishing personal desires and interests. Given such realization, Bacons argument is that people did not work towards discovery the truth and realities of life. In this view, Bacon revealed the possibility of cognitive capacity about the human line of thinking. In simple terms, he argued that the restructured intuition of human thinking revolved around the practical function of thought. Importantly, he argued that there existed certain obstacles to human reasoning on the path to discovering the truth. As such he presented the theory of idols (Sherman, 177). The importance of such a discussion is that Bacon believed that for any logical intuition to exists, there had to be relating evidence or justification to the same school of thought.

The evaluative phase of Bacons reasoning thus presents the contradicting line of reasoning when compared to John Locke. Evidently, Bacon mentioned the barriers to the pursuit of knowledge that exists within the world. As such, he mentioned idols of the tribe and the idols of the cave (Rossi, 121). The mention of the two barriers, in this case, qualified to be innate in the case that they could not be eliminated or avoided. Such reasoning differed from Lockes argument in the case that he did not believe in innate elements during the pursuit of knowledge.

John Lockes work deals with metaphysics and epistemological viewpoint in the case that he tries to distinguish the experimental science and logic. Importantly, Locke tried to distinguish existing theories of practitioners while giving insight on particular themes presented by scholars such as Boyle and Newton. Importantly, he is an individual whose recognition is aligned to natural philosophy given that he provided grounds for debate and extensive research work (Bode, 45). Subsequently, Francis Locke also tackled the issue of metaphysics in the case that he presented a case to argue point to the existence of idols that derailed the human mind from achieving or discovering the truth. Importantly he commented on the field of system science in the case that he identified the learning periods through his writings. 

Conclusively, the world of philosophy is a dominant field that has seen the onset and development of philosophical works. Example philosophers that have largely contributed to the revolution of the field include Francis Bacon and John Locke. The two may have differed in opinion and writings during the course of working. However, they have significantly contributed to the development and understanding of natural philosophy to a great deal. Given such an understanding, it is important to credit their work though their divergent views of have long ignited various debates across the world. In this view, there is need to acknowledge the fact that they are a pair of philosophers to have established a new line of thinking.

 Works Cited

Bacon, Francis. The Physical and Metaphysical Works of Lord Bacon. London: Bell & Daldy, 1872. Print.

Wormlad, Brian. Francis Bacon: History, Politics and Science, 1561-1626. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993. Print.

Bacon, Francis. The Physical and Metaphysical Works of Lord Bacon Including the Advancement of Learning and Novum Organum. London: G. Bell and Sons, 1808. Print.

Rossi, Paolo. Francis Bacon: From Magic to Science. London: Routledge, 2013. Print.

Antsey, Peter. John Locke and Natural Philosophy. Oxford: OUP Oxford, 2011. Print.

Antsey, Peter . The Philosophy of John Locke: New Perspectives. Abingdon: Psychology Press, 2003. Print.

Bode, Marcel. Political Philosophy of John Locke. Munich: GRIN Verlag, 2008. Print.

Faiella, Graham. John Locke: Champion of Modern Democracy. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2005. Print.

Sherman, Patrice. John Locke: Philosopher of the Enlightenment. Huntington: Teacher Created Materials, 2012.