Islamic Traditions Mid Term Study Guide

REL 3363 study Guide:

Fall 2013 Test Format:

The test will have two sections. Section 1 is an in-class exam (50%). Section 2 is a take-home essay (50%).

Terms: Be able to identify and/or define the terms given.

Concepts: Be able to answer questions based on the statements/questions given. For instance, what role does trade play in the Late Antique World?

1) Introduction to the Study of Islam a. Terms: Be able to identify

a. i. Islam- Islam is not active agent? is does not require, forbid, cause, teach, say , express or defend. Muslims do things not Islam.

a. ii. Allah- God of Abraham, Moses, and Jesus.

a. iii. Normative vs. Non-Normative study- normative= schools ( seminary) understanding Gods will. Non normative= state universities- religion as a part of human culture. Neutral stance a. iv. Three ways to approach the question of Islam- a. iv.

1. Historically- religion that began with Muhammad in 610. Abrahamic religion a. iv.

2. Theologically what questions are being answered intellectual discipline that aims to arrive at correct beliefs about God. a. iv.

3. Culturally a formative influence for the cultural practices found in islamdom? the religion where muslims are dominant cultural an political force.

v. Islamdom- the religion where muslims are dominant culturally and a political force.

a. vi. Islamicate- cultural practice??”not motivated by religious beliefs. Ex coffee.

a. vii. Islamic- motivated by Islamic religious beliefs. Ex praying, a mosque b.

Concepts b. i. Understand the relationship between Islamdom, Islamicate, and Islamic. Be able to correctly identify other terms/concepts within that relationship.

b. ii. Be able to elaborate on the “three approaches. ” What kind of sources would we use to answer each one? Who speaks authoritatively for each one? What kind of questions do they bring up? ii. l. Historically – b. iii. Understand the concept of monotheism as it pertains to the Abrahamic traditions.

2) Pre-lslamic Arabia a.

Terms:

a. i. Asabiyyah- group solidarity based on kinship blood relations, either real on imagined.

a. ii. Sheikh- leader of tribe? must be 40.

a. iii. Mawla/Mawali- a client of a tribe.

a. iv. Muruwwa- maniless- moral idea aspired to by tribesmen.

a. v. Nasab-lineage.

a. vi. Dahar- time- you don’t know when you will die so live fully. a. vii. Sira- important gene of literature in traditional Islamic sciences.

a. viii. Ka’ba- housed idols 364. Sacrifices were made there.

Sanctuary. a. ix. Zamzam- well found that was created for ‘shamel and hagar. Lost and then found by Hashim (Muhammads grandfather).

a. x. Asbab al-Nuzul- occasions/circumstances of revelation a. xi. Hubal- betore Muhammad, was primary god.

a. xii. The “daughters of God”- al- lat- agriculture, al marat- fertility/sons, al uzzah- bravery/war a. xiii. Jahilliyah- ignorance of divine guidance b.

Concepts: b. i. Know the social structure of pre-lslamic Arabia and its most important parts (Tribal, et cetera).

b. i. l. Tribes.

b. i. 2. Clans.

b. i. 3. Sub clans.

b. i. 4. Family.

b. i. 5. Quraysh tribe (clans).

b. i. 5. a. Banu hashim.

b. i. 5. b. Banu umayya.

b. i. 5. c. Banu abbas.

b. ii. Know where the Arabian Peninsula sits in the world, i. e. the major players on its borders and their religious traditions. How is the peninsula connected to that world? (You DO need to know the Byzantine, Sasanian, and Abyssinian traditions. You don’t need to know the Ghassanid and Lakhmids, but you should know who they were allied with. )

b. ii. l . Byzantines- greek orthodox

b. ii. 2. Sasanian- Persians, at war with Byzantine empire, Zoroastrian (2 deities, Good and Evil which transcend material reality. )

b. ii. 3. Abyssinian- monophysite Christian( 2 natures in Jesus but dominantly divine).

b. ii. 4. Ghassanids- allies with byzantines.

b. ii. 5. Lakhmids- allies with Persians. Nestorian Christians ( 2 separate natures).

b. iii. What is Mecca’s place in pre-lslamic Arabia?

b. iii. l . Traded leather from sacrificed camels.

b. iii. 2. Wells outside city.

b. iii. 3. No walls cause there was mountains.

b. iii. 4. Sacred mosque center of town- Ka’ba.

b. iv. Know the basic contours of religion in pre-lslamic Arabia.

b. iv. l . Polytheistic.

b. iv. 2. Revelaed natural phenomina.

b. iv. 3. Allah- didn’t interact directly with humans.

b. iv. 4. Hubal (bad)- was the primary god.

b. v. Know the major traditions with whom the Meccans would have been familiar.

b. v. l . Christianity.

b. v. 2. Judaism.

b. v. 3. Nestorian/monophysite.

b. v. 4. Zoroastrians.

b. v. 5. Manicheans.

b. v. 6. Hunafa.

3) Biography of the Prophet Muhammad

a. i. Wahy- Arabic word for revelation.

a. ii. Qibla- direction that should be faced when a muslim prays during salat

a. iii. Sunna- hadith sunna- cultural religious customs and behaviors

a. iv. Mu’adhin- person who calls to prayer ( bilal be ribah first one)

a. v. HiJra- immigration from mecca to medina by Muhammad and his tollowers

a.vi . A1-Sahaba.

a. vii. A1-Isra’ wa al-Mir’aJ- alisra is the night Journey, mir’aJ is the ladder to climb the levels of heaven.

a. viii. Buraq- white with wings on 4 legs beautifully faced. Took Muhammad to top of heaven.

a. ix. HiJra.

a. x. MuhaJirun- early followers of Muhammad who followed Muhammad on his hora.

a. xi. Ansar- “helpers” helped Muhammad once he arrived to medina. Helped with his war.

a. xii. Masjid- prostration. Direction of prayer a. xiii. Munafiqun- hypocrites who acted against Muhammad in medina.

a. xiv. The Cleansing of the Ka’ba- when Muhammad through out all the idols after retaking ecca.

a. xv. Pact of Hudaybiyya- after battle of the trench. peace treaty saying that Muhammad could enter into mecca if they would suspend hostilities for 10 years. He could enter in after 1 year.

a. xvi. Constitution of Medina- formalized political unity of medina under leadership of muhammad.

a. xvii. The Major battles and their sequence.

a. xvii. l. a. xviii. Know the tribes of Medina Oewish and Muslim).

a. xviii. l. Tribes of yathrib.

a. xviii. l . a. muslim.

a. xviii. l . a. i. Aws.

a. xviii. l . a. ii. KhazraJ.

a. xviii. l . b. Jewish tribes.

a. xviii. l . b. i. Bani qaynuga.

a. xviii. l . b. ii. Bani nadir.

a. xviii. l . b. iii. Bani qurayza.

b. i. Know the dates 610, 622, and 632 (and why they are important).

b. i. l . 610- Muhammad receives first revelation in a cave near mecca

b. i. 2. 622- immigration( hiJra)- start of Islamic calendar

b. i. 3. 632- farewell pilgrimage- final pilgrimage of muhammad

b. ii. Why is the HiJra important? Why is it the start of the calendar?

b. ii. l . Movement from oppression to freedom. Now they are in an open state and is a new beginning for the umma

b. iii. Be able to give a general outline of Muhammad’s life.

b. iv. Why study the biography of the Prophet?

b. iv. 1. If you know his biography you will understand the context of the religion Muhammad’s message has three basic parts, what are they?

b. v. l . Only one god.

b. v. 2. Bodily resurrection.

b. v. 3. Judgement.

4) Qur’an a. i. Qu’ran- self aware text- direct word of god.

a. ii. Kitab- prescription/guide to all mankind.

a. iii. Dhikra- remembrance of god.

a. iv. Sura- chapters, longest to shortest, not as organized.

a. v. Aya- verses(split between Makkan and medina).

a. vi. Meccan/Medinan.

a vi 1. Meccan . a. Shorter more poetic.

a. vi. l.

a. vi. l . b. About tawhid.

vi. l. b. i. Prophethood.

vi. l. b. ii. Day of Judgement.

vi. l . b. iii. The unseen world.

a. vi. 2. Medinan.

a. vi. 2. a. longer and more specific/complicated.

a. i. 2. a. i. Rules.

a. vi. 2. a. ii. Needs of community changed.

a. vii. TaJwid- the science of recitation.

a. viii. Tawhid- oneness of God-all powerful- mercy outweighs wrath- the “Basmala”- merciful compassionate Just Bismal ar rahmen/ ar Rahim – compassionate root= womb.

a. ix. Prophethood (Nabi vs. Rasul-Warner vs. Messenger)- Rasuls= apostles messengers of Allah given new code of law. Nabi- warners not given a new code.

a. x. The Basmala- merciful. Compassionate, Just and Judging.

a. xi. Amana- doctrine that that humanity accepted responsibility- to create social justice and to follow gods plan when pulled from Adams loins.

a. xii. Taqwa- most important word in Qur’an- God fearing, moral consciousness of humans.

a. xiii. Nafs- absolute right from wrong.

a. xiv. Kafr (Kuffar)- unbeliever, willful disobedience to god, unraceful.

a. xv. Shirk (Mushrikun)- association, associating anything that wasn’t god with god.

a. xvi. Day of Judgment- (yawm al din) end of time- all humanity resurrected, body parts will tell evil acts.

a. xvii. The Unseen World (who is in it? )

a. xvii. l . angels- Jinn- have some free will.

a. xvii. 2. Satans(demons) – whisper to mankind.

a. xvii. 3. Satan(lblis)- sometimes Jinn sometimes angel- refused to bow to humans, disobeyed god. ursed.

a. xviii. Remembered Scripture- ex John 3:16.

a. xix. Forgotten Scripture- irrelevant, people don’t like it, it’s too complicated.

a. xx. Imagined Scripture- parts we think are in there but aren’t. traditional.

a. xxi. Tafsir- Qur’an commentary/interpretation (revealing) explains unclear parts.

a. xxii. Ahl al- Kitab- People who don’t follow Quran but have holy scripture(People of book)- ex the Jews.

a. xxiii. Pluralism- “an acknowledgement of intrinsic redemptive value of ompeting religious tradition soteriological- other communities have valid claims to salvation

a. xxiv. Naskh- Abrogahan- chronology of revelation become a critical factor to interpretation.

a. xxv. Fitra- human nature- divine understanding of good and evil consciousness.

a. xxvi. Dhimma- god’s oneness- protection of community.

a. xxvii. Jizyap- tax- tax older was high for non muslims.

a. xxviii. Jihad vs. Qital- Jihad – struggle in the path of god, maintenance for social order. Qital- more common- fight.

a. xxix. Futuhat- conquests mid 9th century.

a. xxx. Dar al-lslam/Dar al-Harb/Dar al-Ahd.

a. xxx. l. Dar al islam- abode of islam

a. xxx. 2. Dar al harb- abode of warfare

a. xxx. 3. Dar al ahd- abode of treaty

b. i. Consider the Qur’an in its various conte What does that mean tor interpretation?

b. ii. Be able to relate the relationship between Amana, Taqwa, Nafs, Kaf, and Shirk

b. iii. According to Sachedina, what does the Qur’an have to say about pluralism? About warfare?

b. iv. What is the difference between religious Justification for war and moral Justification?

b. v. What is the Qur’an? (Consider the three ways to answer. )

b. v. l . Recitation, word of god-sacred book, reminder- warners, guidance- messaengers, descritption.

b. vi. Why is the idea of abrogation important?

b. vii. Be able to identify a Meccan and/or Medinan sura and/or aya. All Meccan translations will be taken from Sells. )

b. viii. Know the two major composition narratives.

5) Sunna

a. i. Hadith vs. hadith.

a. i. 1 . Hadith- the mass of literature about what Muhammad. Said, did, and silently confirmed.

a. i. 2. hadith- specific narration

a. ii. Sunna- described in hadiths, cultural customs and behaviors.

a. iii. Isnad- authenticates hadith, chains of transmitters.

a. iv. Matn- body of text, what was actually said.

a. v. ’11m al-hadith and ‘ilm al-raJal.

a. v.1. ‘ilm al hadith- science of hadith a. v. . ’11m al raJal – science of men relating hadiths.

a. vi. Sahih, hasan, da’if; mutawatir, ahad- calssifying Hadiths.

a. vi. 1 . Sahih- sound/ good.

a. vi. 2. Hasan- good but weaker.

a. vi. 3. Da’if- weak, narrators = unrealistic.

a. vi. 4. Mutawatir – widespread, slightly different in detail.

a. vi. 5. Ahad – single verse at a single time.

a. vii. Hadith Qudsi- extension of revelation speech of Muhammad but meaning from god. not revelation, but divine inspiration. b.

Concepts: b. i. How does the idea of sunna develop in relation to Islam as a religion?

b. i. l . Spread orally b. ii. What is the relationship between isnad and ’11m al-raJal.

b. i. l . Science of men relating. Isnad is transmitters and the other is the science of how it all worked out.

b. iii. Know the spectrum of hadith.

b. iv. What is the relationship between Hadith, hadith, and sunna?

b. iv. l . Hadtih- mas of lit.

b. iv. 2. hadith- one specific.

b. iv. 3. sunna- content of hadiths.

b. v. What is the relationship between an isnad and a matn?

b. v. l . Isnad- authenticates hadiths.

b. v. 2. Matn- what was actually said.

b. vi. What is the relationship between the Sunna, the Qur’an, and the Sira literature? (Think interpretation)

Section 2 W ite 2-3 pages on one ot the tollowing prompts

Page tormat: double- space, 12 point times new roman font. Put your name in the upper-right corner. Instead of a title, put the number of the question you are answering. The readings and lectures provide enough information to adequately answer each question. As a take-home exam proper attribution and citation is expected and required where appropriate (any major style is acceptable. ) Hand in a printed copy of your essay WITH your test. Provide a clear thesis, argument, and conclusion.

1) Discuss the development of Islam in the context of Pre-lslamic Arabia and Late Antiquity (the surrounding area). Choose three distinct points of difference or similarity and analyze the dialogue between the Pre-lslamic context and the Islamic context.

2) Discuss the life of the Prophet Muhammad. Choose three specific events in the Prophet’s life and analyze their impact on the development of Islam and the early community.

3) Discuss the Qur’an. How does the Qur’an approach the notion of human perfection on both the personal and the social level and what does this imply about the relationship between humanity and God?

4) Discuss the relationship between the Qur’an and the Sunna. What does it imply for the development of Islamicate civilization?