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The K?¶ppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Russian German climatologist Wladimir K?¶ppen in 1884, with several later modifications by K?¶ppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936. Later, German climatologist Rudolf Geiger collaborated with K?¶ppen on changes to the classification system, which is thus sometimes referred to as the K?¶ppen-Geiger climate classification system. The system is based on the concept that native vegetation is the best expression of climate. Thus, climate zone boundaries have been selected with vegetation distribution in mind.

It combines average annual and monthly temperatures and precipitation, and the seasonality of precipitation. [2]:200- 1 Contents [hide] 1 Scheme 1. 1 GROUP A: Tropical/megathermal climates 1. 2 GROUP B: Dry (arid and semiarid) climates 1. 3 GROUP C: Mild Temperate/mesothermal climates 1. 4 GROUP D: Continental/microthermal climate 1. 5 GROUP E: polar climates 2 Criticisms of the K?¶ppen scheme 3 Trewartha climate classification scheme 4 World Map of the K?¶ppen-Geiger climate classification for the period 1951-2000 5 Other maps 6 See also 7 References 8 External links 8. 1 Climate records Scheme[edit]

The K?¶ppen climate classification scheme divides climates into five main groups, each having several types and subtypes. Each particular climate type is represented by a 2 to 4 letter symbol. GROUP A: Tropical/megathermal climates[edit] Tropical climates are characterized by constant high temperature (at sea level and low elevations) ??” all twelve months of the year have average temperatures of 18 oc (64 OF) or higher. They are subdivided as follows: Tropical rainforest climate (Af):[2]: 205-8 All twelve months have average precipitation of at least 60 mm (2. 4 in). These climates usually occur within 5-100 latitude of the equator.

In some eastern-coast areas, they may extend to as much as 250 away from the equator. This climate is dominated by the Doldrums Low Pressure System all year round, and therefore has no natural seasons. Some of the places that have this climate are indeed uniformly and monotonously wet throughout the year (e. g. , the northwest Pacific coast of South and Central America, from Ecuador to Costa Rica, see for instance, Andagoya, Colombia), but in many cases the period of higher sun and longer days is distinctly wettest (as at Palembang, Indonesia) or the time of lower sun and shorter days may ave more rain (as at Sitiawan, Malaysia).

A few places with this climate are found at example is Santos, Brazil. Note. The term aseasonal refers to the lack in the tropical zone of large differences in day light hours and mean monthly (or daily) temperature throughout the year. There are annual cyclic changes in the tropics, not as predictable as those in the temperate zone, albeit unrelated to temperature but to water availability whether as rain, mist, soil, or ground water. Plant response (e. g. , phenology), animal (feeding, migration, reproduction, et cetera), and human activities plant sowing, harvesting, hunting, fishing, et cetera) are tuned to this seasonality.

Indeed, in tropical South America and Central America, the rainy season (and the high water season) is called Invierno or Inverno, even though it could occur in the northern hemisphere summer; likewise, the dry season (and low water season) is called Verano or Ver?¤o and can occur in the northern hemisphere winter. Tropical monsoon climate (Am):[2]:208 This type of climate, most common in South America, results from the monsoon winds which change direction according to the seasons.

This climate has a driest month (which nearly always occurs at or soon after the “winter” solstice for that side of the equator) with rainfall less than 60 mm, but more than 1/25 the total annual precipitation. Examples: Cairns, Queensland, Australia[3] Miami, Florida, United States[4] There is also another scenario under which some places fit into this category; this is referred to as the trade-wind littoral climate because easterly winds bring enough precipitation during the “winter” months to prevent the climate from becoming a tropical wet-and-dry climate. Nassau, Bahamas is included among these locations.

Tropical wet and dry or savanna climate These climates have a pronounced dry season, with the driest month having precipitation less than 60 mm and also less than 1/25 the total annual precipitation. Examples: Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia[5] Caracas, Venezuela Mumbai, India Bangkok, Thailand[6] Most places that have this climate are found at the outer margins of the tropical zone, but occasionally an inner-tropical location (e. g. , San Marcos, Antioquia, Colombia) also qualifies. Actually, the Caribbean coast, eastward from the Gulf of Urab?¤ on the Colombia-Panam?¤ border to the Orinoco river delta, on the Atlantic

Ocean (ca. 4,000 km), have long dry periods (the extreme is the BSh climate (see below), characterised by very low, unreliable precipitation, present, for instance, in extensive areas in the Guajira, and Coro, western Venezuela, the northernmost peninsulas in South America, which receive 220C. In Europe these climates tend to be much drier than in North America. In eastern Asia Dwa climates extend further south due to the influence of the Siberian high pressure system, which also causes winters there to be dry, and summers can be very wet because of monsoon circulation.

Dsa xists at higher elevations adjacent to areas with hot summer Mediterranean (Csa) climates. Examples: Chicago, Illinois, United States (Dfa) Turkey (Dsa) Warm Summer Continental or Hemiboreal climates (Dfb, Dwb, Dsb):[2] Dfb and Dwb climates are immediately north of Hot Summer Continental climates, generally in the high 40s and low 50s in latitude in North America and Asia, and also in central and eastern Europe and Russia, between the Maritime Temperate and Continental Subarctic climates, where it extends up to high 50s and even low 60 degrees latitude. Examples: Helsinki, Finland (Dfb) Kiev, Ukraine (Dfb)[4]

Fargo, North Dakota, United States (Dfb) Buffalo, New York, United States (Dfb) Montreal, Quebec, Canada (Dfb) Vladivostok, Russia (Dwb) Dsb arises from the same scenario as Dsa, but at even higher altitudes or latitudes, and chiefly in North America since here the Mediterranean climates extend further poleward than in Eurasia. Examples include: Flagstaff, Arizona, United States South Lake Tahoe, California, United States. Continental Subarctic or Boreal (taiga) climates (Dfc, Dwc, Dsc):[2]:232-5 Dfc and Dwc climates occur poleward of the other Group D climates, mostly in the 50s and low 60s

North latitude, although it might occur as far north as 700 latitude. Murmansk, Russia (Dft) Yellowknife, Northwest Territories (Dfc) Crater Lake, Oregon (DSC) Mohe County, Heilongjiang, China (Dwc) Continental Subarctic climates with extremely severe winters (Dfd, Dwd, Dsd):[2] Places with this climate have the temperature in their coldest month lower than -38 oc (-36 OF) These climates occur only in eastern Siberia. The names of some of the places that have this climate ??” most notably Verkhoyansk (Dfd) and Oymyakon (Dwd) ??” have become veritable synonyms for extreme, severe winter cold.

GROUP E: Polar climates[edit] Main article: Polar climate These climates are characterized by average temperatures below 10 oc (50 OF) in all twelve months of the year: Tundra climate (ET):[2]:235-7 Warmest month has an average temperature between O and 10 oc (32 and 50 OF). These climates occur on the northern edges of the North American and Eurasian landmasses, and on nearby islands. It also occurs on some islands near the Antarctic Convergence. ET is also found at high elevations outside the polar regions, above the tree line: Mount Fuji, Japan Mount Washington, New Hampshire, United States

Jotunheimen, Norway Ice Cap climate (EF):[2]:237 All twelve months have average temperatures below O oc (32 OF). This climate is dominant in Antarctica (e. g. , Scott Base) and in inner Greenland (e. g. , Eismitte or North Ice). Occasionally, a third, lower-case letter is added to ET climates if either the summer or winter is clearly drier than the other half of the year; thus Herschel Island (‘Qikiqtaruk’, in Inuvialuit) off the coast of Pyrenees acquiring an ETS designation. If the precipitation is more or less evenly spread throughout the year, ETf may be used, such as for Hebron, Labrador.

When the option to include this letter is exercised, the same standards that are used for Groups C and D apply, with the additional requirement that the wettest month must have an average of at least 30 mm precipitation (Group E climates can be as dry or even drier than Group B climates based on actual precipitation received, but their rate of evaporation is much lower). Seasonal precipitation letters are almost never attached to EF climates, mainly due to the difficulty in distinguishing between falling and blowing snow, as snow is the sole source of moisture in these climates.

Criticisms of the K?¶ppen scheme[edit] This article contains weasel words: vague phrasing that often accompanies biased or unverifiable information. Such statements should be clarified or removed. (March 2009) Some climatologists have argued that K?¶ppen’s system could be improved upon. One of the most frequently-raised objections concerns the temperate Group C category, regarded by many as overly broad. Using the OOC isotherm, New Orleans and London would both fall into this climate scheme, despite dramatic differences between these climates.

In Applied Climatology (first edition published in 1966), John F. Griffiths proposed a new subtropical zone, encompassing those areas with a coldest month of between 6 and 18 oc (43 and 64 OF), effectively subdividing Group C into two nearly equal parts (his scheme assigns the letter B to the new zone, and identifies dry climates with an additional letter immediately following the temperature-based letter). Another point of contention involves the dry B climates; the argument here is that their separation by K?¶ppen into only two thermal subsets is inadequate.

Those who hold this view (including Griffiths) have suggested that the ry climates be placed on the same temperature continuum as other climates, with the thermal letter being followed by an additional capital letter ??” S for steppe or W (or D) for desert ??” as applicable (Griffiths also advances an alternate formula for use as an aridity threshold: R = 160 + 9T, with R equalling the threshold, in millimeters of mean annual precipitation, and T denoting the mean annual temperature in degrees Celsius).

A third idea is to create a maritime polar or EM zone within Group E to separate relatively mild marine locations (such as the Falkland Islands, and the outer Aleutian Islands) from the colder, continental tundra climates. Specific proposals vary; some advocate setting a coldest-month parameter, such as -7 oc (19 OF), while others support assigning the new designation to areas with an average annual temperature of above O oc. The accuracy of the 10 oc warmest-month line as the start of the polar climates has also been questioned; Otto Nordenski?¶ld, for example, devised an alternate formula: W = 9 – 0. C, with W representing the average temperature of the warmest month and C that of the coldest month, both in degrees Celsius (for instance, if the coldest month averaged -20 oc, a warmest-month average of 11 oc or higher would be necessary to prevent the climate from being polar). This boundary does appear to more closely follow the tree line, or the latitude poleward of which trees cannot grow, than the 10 oc warmest-month isotherm; the former tends lower latitude in the landmass interiors, the two lines crossing at or near the east coasts of both Asia and North America.

Trewartha climate classification scheme[edit] It has been suggested that this section be split into a new article. (Discuss) Proposed since December 2013. The Trewartha climate classification scheme (1966 and 1980 update) is a modified version of the K?¶ppen system, and was an answer to some of the deficiencies of the 1899 K?¶ppen system. The newer Trewartha theme attempts to redefine the middle latitudes in such a way as to be closer to vegetational zoning and genetic climate systems.

This change was seen as most effective in Asia and North America, where many areas fell into a single zone (the C climate group). Under the standard K?¶ppen system in the USA for example, western Washington and Oregon are classed into the same climate as southern California, even though the two egions have strikingly different weather and vegetation. The K?¶ppen system also classes Midwest into the same climate as the Gulf Coast.

Trewartha’s modifications sought to reclass the middle latitudes into zones; 1) Subtropical – 8 or more months have a mean temperature of 50 F/IO C or higher. 2) Temperate – 4 to 7 months have a mean temperature of 10 C or higher. 3) Boreal (or subarctic)- 1 to 3 months have a mean temperature of 10 C or higher. This change from the older K?¶ppen system was thought to reflect a more true or “real world” reflection of the global climate. [1 1] Group A This the tropical climate realm, defined the same as in K?¶ppen’s scheme (i. e. , all 12 months average 18 oc or above).

Climates with no more than two dry months (defined as having less than 60 mm average precipitation, same as per K?¶ppen) are classified Ar (instead of K?¶ppen’s Af), while others are classified Aw if the dry season is at the time of low sun/short days or As if the dry season is at the time of high sun/long days. There was no specific monsoon climate identifier in the original scheme, but Am was added later, with the same parameters as K?¶ppen’s (except that at least hree months, rather than one, must have less than 60 mm average precipitation).

Group B BW and BS mean the same as in the K?¶ppen scheme, with the K?¶ppen BWn climate sometimes being designated BM (the M standing for “marine”). However, a different formula is used to quantify the aridity threshold: 10 X (T – 10) + 3P, with T equalling the mean annual temperature in degrees Celsius and P denoting the percentage of total precipitation received in the six high-sun months (April through September in the Northern Hemisphere and October through March in the Southern).

If the recipitation for a given location is less than the above formula, its climate is said to be that of a desert (SW); if it is equal to or greater than the above formula but less than twice that amount, the climate is classified as steppe (BS); and if the precipitation is more than double the value of the formula the climate is not in Group B. Unlike in K?¶ppen’s scheme, no thermal subsets exist within this group in Trewartha’s, unless the Universal Thermal Scale (see below) is used.

Group C In the Trewartha scheme this category encompasses Subtropical climates (C) only (8 or more months above 10 oc). Cs and Cw have the same meanings as they do in designated Cr instead of K?¶ppen’s Cf (and for Cs the average annual precipitation must be less than 890 mm (35 in) in addition to the driest summer month having less than 30 mm precipitation and being less than one-third as wet as the wettest winter month). Group D This group represents Temperate climates (D) with (4 to 7 months above 10 oc).

Temperate Oceanic maritime climates (most of K?¶ppen’s Cfb and Cwb climates, though some of these would fit into Trewartha’s Cr and Cw respectively) are denoted DO in the Trewartha classification (although some places (like Halifax) near the east oasts of both North America and Asia actually qualify as DO climates in Trewartha’s scheme when they fit into Cfa/Cwa rather than Cfb/Cwb in K?¶ppen’s), while Temperate Continental climates are represented as DCa (K?¶ppen Dfa, Dwa, Dsa) and DCb (K?¶ppen Dfb, Dwb, Dsb).

For the continental climates, sometimes the third letter (a or b) is omitted and DC is simply used instead, and occasionally a precipitational seasonality letter is added to both the maritime and continental climates (r, w, or s, as applicable). The dividing point between the maritime and continental climates is -3 c in the coldest month, however, some climatologists ??” particularly in the United States ??” now observe O oc in the coldest month as the equatorward limit of the continental climates in that scheme as well).

Group E This represents Ice realms, defined the same as in K?¶ppen’s scheme (1 to 3 months with average temperatures of 10 oc or above; K?¶ppen Cfc, Dfc, Dwc, DSC, Dfd, Dwd). In the original scheme, this group was not further divided; later, the designations EO and EC were created, with EO (maritime subarctic) signifying that the coldest month averages above -10 oc, while EC (continental subarctic or “boreal”) means that at east one month has an average temperature of -10 oc or below. As in Group D, a third letter can be added to indicate seasonality of precipitation.

There is no separate counterpart to the K?¶ppen Dfd/Dwd climate in Trewartha’s scheme. Group F This is the polar climate group, split into FT (K?¶ppen ET) and Fl (K?¶ppen EF). Group H Highland climates, in which altitude plays a role in determining climate classification. [2]:237-40 Specifically, this would apply if correcting the average temperature of each month to a sea-level value using the formula of adding 5. 6 oc for each 1,000 meters f elevation would result in the climate fitting into a different thermal group than that into which the actual monthly temperatures place it.

Sometimes G is used instead of H if the above is true and the altitude is 500 meters or higher but lower than 2,500 meters; but the G or H is placed in front of the applicable thermal letter rather than replacing it ??” and the second letter used reflects the corrected monthly temperatures, not the actual monthly temperatures. Universal Thermal Scale An option exists to include information on both the warmest and coldest months for every climate by adding a third and fourth letter, respectively. The letters used conform to the following scale: i ??” severely hot: Mean monthly temperature 235 oc (95 OF) or higher h ??” very hot: 28 to 34. oc (82. 4 to 94. 8 OF) a ??” hot: 23 to 27. 9 oc (73. 4 to 82. 2 OF) b ??”warm: 18 to 22. 9 oc (64. 4 to 73. 2 OF) I ??” mild: 10 to 17. 9 oc (50 to 64. 2 OF) k??” cool: 0. 1 to 9. 9 oc (32. 2 to 49. 8 OF) c ??” very cold: -24. 9 to -10 oc (-12. 8 to 14 OF) d ??” severely cold: -39. 9 to -25 oc (-39. 8 to -13 OF) e ??” excessively cold: -40 oc (-40 OF) or below. Examples of the resulting designations include Afaa for Surabaya, Indonesia, BWhl or Aswan, Egypt, Crhk for Dallas, Texas, U. S. DObk for London, EClc for Arkhangelsk, Russia, and FTkd for Barrow, Alaska, U.

S.. World Map of the K?¶ppen-Geiger climate classification for the period 1951-2000[edit] Based on recent data sets from the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) of the University of East Anglia and the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) at the German Weather Service, a new digital K?¶ppen-Geiger world map on climate classification for the second half of the 20th century has been compiled. [4] Other maps[edit] All maps use the 20 oc definition for temperate climates and the 18 oc annual mean emperature threshold to distinguish between hot and cold dry climates. l] K?¶ppen map of Africa K?¶ppen map of the Americas K?¶ppen map of Asia K?¶ppen map of Australia/Oceania K?¶ppen map of Brazil K?¶ppen map of Europe K?¶ppen map of North America K?¶ppen map of Russia K?¶ppen map of South America K?¶ppen map of the Middle East See also[edit] Holdridge life zones climate classification by three dimensions: precipitation, humidity, and potential evapotranspiration ratio References[edit] A Jump up to: a b c Peel, M. C. and Finlayson, B. L. and McMahon, T. A. (2007). “Updated world map of the K?¶ppen-Geiger climate classification”. Hydrol. Earth Syst. sci. 1 1: 1633-1644. dotno. 194/hess-11-1633-2007. ISSN 1027-5606. (direct: Final Revised Paper) Jump up to: a b c de f gh iJ kl m n op q McKnight, Tom L; Hess, Darrel (2000). “Climate Zones and Types”. Physical Geography: A Landscape Appreciation. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-020263-0. Jump up A Linacre, Edward; Bart Geerts (1997). Climates and Weather Explained. London: Routledge. p. 379. ISBN 0-415-12519-7. jump up to: a b c K0ttek, M. ,J. Gneser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel (2006). “World Map of the K?¶ppen-Geiger climate classification updated”. Meteorol. Z. 15 (3): 259-263. Bibcode:2006Metze.. 5.. 259K. dot:lo. 127/0941-2948/200610130. Retrieved 2013-06-01. jump up “CHAPTER 7: Introduction to the Atmosphere”. physicalgeography. net. Retrieved 2008-07-15. Jump up A Engineering Weather Data CD-ROM Station List, National Climate Data Center. Retrieved 2013-06-01 Jump up A “Statistics for AUS WA. Perth. Airport RMY”. EnergyPlus. U. S. Department of Energy. Retrieved 2009-01-19. Jump up A “Climate classification of S?¤o Paulo state”. Instituto Agron?¶mico de Campinas. Jump up A “Climatological Information for Juliaca, Peru”. Hong Kong Observatory. Jump up A “Iceland Met office: Monthly Averages for Reykjavik”. Iceland Met Office. 012.

Retrieved on January 4, 2013. Jump up A Akin, Wallace E. (1991). Global Patterns: Climate, Vegetation, and Soils. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 52. ISBN 0-8061-2309-5. External linkscedit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to K?¶ppen-Geiger. World Map of the K?¶ppen-Geiger climate classification for the period 1951-2000 Global climate maps, using K?¶ppen classification (FAO, 1999) Climate records[edit] Weatherbase [hide] v te Climate types under the K?¶ppen climate classification Class A Tropical rainforest (Af) Tropical monsoon (Am) Tropical savanna (Aw, As) Class B Desert (Bwh, Bwk, awn) Semi-arid (Bsh, Bsk) Class C

Humid subtropical (Cfa, Cwa) Oceanic (Cfb, Cwb, Cfc, Cwc) Mediterranean (Csa, Csb) Class D Humid continental (Dfa, Dwa, Dfb, Dwb, Dsa, Dsb) Subarctic (Dfc, Dwc, Dfd, Dwd,Dsc, DSd) Class E polar (ET, EF) Alpine (ET/H) Categories: K?¶ppen climate classificationsClimateClassification systems Navigation menu Create accountLog inArticleTalkReadEditVlew history Search Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact page Tools Print/export Languages Aragon?©s B?¤n-l?¤m-g?? Sbnrapcwl Bosanski Catal?¤ eeStina Dansk Deutsch Eesti E-MnvLK??

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